Biochemistry

Scope of biochemistry, nucleic acids, protein, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides), derivatives of monosaccharides (glycosides, phosphate esters, acids and lactones, amino sugars), lipids, membranes, pigments, photosynthetic pigments, enzymes, allosteric enzymes, isoenzymes, amino acids, organic acids, photosynthesis, respiration, vitamins.

Soil Science

Major components of soils; origin, genesis and classification of parent materials; mechanical forces and chemical processes of weathering; factors influencing soil formation; soil profile; soil classification; some important physical properties of mineral soils; the supply and availability of plant nutrients in mineral soils; the nature and practical significance of soil colloids; soil reactions; soil water; organic matter of mineral soils; soil air; soil temperature; organic soils.

Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers

Introduction, Foliar nutrient uptake, Fertilizers and Fertilization, Uptake of nutrient (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B, Mo, Cl) by plants, their fate in soil and plants, their physiological and biochemical role in plants, and their deficiency and toxicity in plants, Chloride, Sodium and salinity, Beneficial elements, Relations between plant nutrition and both diseases and parasites.

Soil Physics

Basic relationships in soil physics; the soil as a disperse system, characteristics of the dispersed phase; soil texture, particle size distribution and textural classification; soil structure, classification, genesis, evaluation and agricultural significance of soil structure; soil water, soil water retention, energy state of soil water, potential and movement of soil water, classification of soil water; soil aeration; soil temperature.

Soil Fertility

History of soil fertility, factors of affecting of soil fertility, soil water, soil texture, soil air, soil temperature, soil reaction, soil organic matter, soil biological properties, nutrient elements, soil-plant-water relationships, soil colloidal properties, change of anyon and cation in soil, soil salinity and alkalinity, methods of determination of soil fertility.

Fertility Analysis in Soil and Plants

General introductory knowledge on laboratory, Soil and plant sampling and preparation for the analysis, Methods of analysis and equipment, Extraction procedures, Analysis of lime, pH, CEC, OM, and plant available macro and micronutrients in soils, Ashing methods, Analysis of mineral nutrients in plants, Heavy metal analysis in soil and plants, Interpretation of the analysis.

Biogeochemistry

Origine of elements and molecules in-universe, formation of life, elements of earth, atmospheres, earth crust, microbial decomposition presses, biogeochemical cycle on land, fresh water, water land and biogeochemistry in lakes, global water cycle, global C cycle, global S cycle global N and P cycles, necessity, and toxicity of elements.

Environmental Problems

The nature of environmental concerns, ecology and environment, causes of environmental conflicts, air quality and atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion and climatic changes, effects of specific pollutants on vegetation, water resources and water pollution, chemical pollution of the aquatic environment, water pollution biology, soil pollution and land contamination, the environmental behaviour of toxic organic chemicals, radioactivity in the environment, health effects of environmental chemicals, integrated pollution control and waste minimization.

Fertilization in Organic Agriculture

The principal of organic agriculture, plant nutrition, functions of mineral nutrients in higher plants, determination of mineral nutrient requirement, fertilizer sources in organic agriculture, important of organic matter in organic agriculture, evaluation of organic waste as organic fertilizer, composting and compost technique, use of organic fertilizer in organic agriculture.

Soil Information Systems

What is map, classification of maps, mapping projection systems, national coordinate systems, global positioning systems, introduction to geographic information systems, raster and vector data, exchanging data formats, data sources and data producing techniques, digitizing techniques, soil database formation techniques, data analysis, query and outputs, database preparation.

Soil Genesis

Soil morphology (pedon and soil profile, horizons and descriptions), weathering and soil formation, soil forming factors, soil forming processes, modern soil classification systems, Soil Taxonomy, diagnostic soil horizons, soil temperature and moisture regimes, soil classification, and Gelisols, Histosols, Spodosols, Oxisols, Vertisols, Aridisols, Ultisols, Mollisols, Alfisols, Andisols, Inceptisols, Entisols.

Soil Technology

Harmful construction materials, clay minerals, relationships of clay with engineering, clays, and soils used in ceramic industry, used sectors, raw material production places and practical studies in soils,

Soils and Waters of Turkey

Agricultural land potential, present land evaluation, main soil problems, general soil properties, the general statue of rivers, lakes, and sea, drinking water, irrigation and water quality, pollution in surface water and general properties of 26 river basins of Turkey.

Soil Biology

Soil organisms and ecosystem concept, soil as an ecosystem, soil organisms, soil enzymes and functions, microbial interactions, soil fauna, development of the soil ecosystem and biogeochemical effects of edaphon, organic matter decay and carbon turnover, nitrogen fixation, microbiological fertilisation, microbial transformations of phosphorus,microbial transformations os sulfur, microbial transformations of trace elements, effects of agrochemicals on edaphon.

Soil Chemistry

History of soil chemistry and importance in soil science, chemical principles, soil development and weathering, inorganic components and clay minerals, soil organic matter and humus, ion exchange in soil, cation exchange capacity, fixation, anion and molecular retention, soil reaction, soil acidity and alkalinity, lime requirement, salinity and reclamation, buffer systems in soil, soil oxidation-reduction.

Experimental Techniques

Introduction, Important theories and rules on soil fertility, Fertilizer used in experiments, their specifications and applications, Greenhouse experiments, Field experiments, Discussions on greenhouse and field experiments, Water quality used in the experiments, and irrigation methods.

Water Quality

Distribution of water resources on the earth surface, physical chemical and biological processes in aquic conditions, classification of water pollutants, hydrological cycle and water quality, natural and human-based changes on water quality during hydrological cycle water quality values and environmental limitations, water resources in agriculture, water quality standards, A agricultural forms, (Living of village, products, milk companies, farm animals), traditional and current irrigation water, quality and pollution parameters water quality for wildlife, quality requirement for aquatic info, water quality criteria for industrial activities, purification processes, water quality management, water policies.

Soil Erosion and Conservation

Distribution of Soil Erosion, Soil Conservation and Environment, Factors that Affect Erosion, Approaches to Conserving Soil and Water, Crop and Vegetative Cover Management, Soil Management, Physical Conservation Practices, Mechanics of Soil Erosion, Processes of Soil Detachment, Transport and Deposition, Splash Erosion, Sheet Erosion, Rill Erosion, Gully Erosion, Wind Erosion, Erosion Risk Assessment, Models of Erosion Prediction, Water Erosion Control, Wind Erosion Control.

Soil Survey and Mapping

Introduction, Soil Morphology, Soil formation process, Soil taxonomy and taxonomic system, Soil survey and mapping use area and object, Soil mapping, Soil survey and mapping induction time, Soil describe and analysis, Report of soil survey and mapping, Comment on soil survey and mapping explain taxonomy.

Soil Reclamation and Conditioners

Formation, types and distributions of salt-affected soils in Turkey and the world, general characteristics of saline and alkali soils, kinds and characteristics of salts in soils, salt and water balance in soils, salt movement in soils, reclamation of saline and alkali soils, plant growth in salt-affected soils, effect of management practices on dynamics of water and salts in soils, evaluation of water quality, social-economic approaches for reclamation and management of salt-affected soils.

Technical English

Terms of about soil science and plant nutrition, translation of scientific articles and part of the book from English to Turkish and from Turkish to English.

Analytical Chemistry

Chemical analysis, importance of water in chemical analysis, chemical bonds, solutions, solution concentrations, properties of solutions, chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, acid – bases equilibrium, electrolyte, pH, hydrolyses, buffer solutions, heterogenic balance of the little dissolved salts in the water, error sources in quantitative analysis and removing error sources, gravimetric analysis, indicators, neutrality, titration methods based on redox and sedimentation reactions.

Fertilizer Technology

Introduction to fertilizers and fertilization, plant nutrients, prescribing soil and crop nutrient needs, organic fertilizers, processing and use, Chemical fertilizer production and consumption profile of Turkey, production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, production and use of phosphorus fertilizers, production and use of potassium fertilizers, production and use of sulphur, calcium and magnesium fertilizers, micronutrient fertilizers and use, production of foliar fertilizers and use, Production and use of solid, liquid and suspension fertilizers for fertigation.

Environment

Ecology and environment, roots of environmental pollution, air pollution and atmosphere, hydrological cycle and water pollution, water pollution control and water treatment, wetlands, soil pollution, effects of air pollution on soils, effects of polluted waters, pesticides and soil pollution, fertilising and soil pollution,heavy metals and soil pollution, waste and oil pollution,mining and industrial soil use,waste management, environmental impact assessment.

Soil Erosion

Distribution of Erosion, Factors that Affect Erosion, Mechanics of Soil Erosion, Processes of Soil Detachment, Transport and Deposition, Splash Erosion, Sheet Erosion, Rill Erosion, Gully Erosion, Wind Erosion, Erosion Risk Assessment, Models of Erosion Prediction, Water Erosion Control, Wind Erosion Control.

Soil Fertility and Fertilizers

Introduction, terms of about soil fertility, affecting factors of soil fertility, plant nutrition elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo), sodium, chloride, and salinity, fertilizers, and fertilization

Nutrition Physiology in Plants

Plant physiology and plant cell, essential mineral elements and plant nutrients, nutritional medias of plants, soil and its important properties for plants, germination, plant roots, availability of mineral elements, uptake and transport of water, diffusion and osmosis, uptake and long-distance transport of mineral elements, factors affecting uptake of mineral elements by plants, transport of mineral elements in cell membrane and roots, transport of organic and phonetic matters in plants, transpiration, stress physiology in plants.

Geobiochemistry

Origine of elements and molecules in-universe, formation of life, elements of earth, atmospheres, earth crust, microbial decomposition presses, biogeochemical cycle on land, fresh water, water land and biogeochemistry in lakes, global water cycle, global C cycle, global S cycle global N and P cycles, necessity, and toxicity of elements.

Geology and Geomorphology

Earth Shape and Divisions, Magmatic, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks, Primer and Secondary Minerals, Alteration Products, Classification of Rocs and Minerals, Tectonic Geomorphology, Slopes, Drainage Network, River Channels, Floodplains, Fluvial Terraces, Alluvial Fans, Deltas, Glacial, Tectonic and Volcanic Shapes, Faults, Folds, Lakes, Surface Landforms, Limestone Caves, Coastal Topography.

Soil Biotechnology

Microbial saprophytes, spremosfer and rhizosphere, infection of plant roots, growth regulators and phytotoxins occurred by plants, the effect of soil applications, microorganisms applications and methods in agricultural systems, biotransformation and biodegradation.

Soil Mechanics

Basic components of soil, structure and its types, compaction and soil management in compacted soils, consolidation, strength-stress relationships and resistance of soil, slope stability, engineering properties and classification of soils, relationships between soil dynamics and soil tillage, techniques of soil tillage and tillage problems.

Soil Water and Plant Relationships

Basic physical properties of soils, Physical properties of soil water, The state of water in soil, Surface tension and capillarity, Plant and water relationships, Energy state of soil water, Classification of soil water, Measurement of soil water content and soil water potential, Principles of water movement in soil, Soil and water relationships

Soil and Watershed Management

Turkish soils from the point of their management, problems related to land management, drought, water economy and soil conservation, watershed bodies and components, watershed planning and management, management priorities in Central and Southeastern Anatolian regions, seedbed, soil compaction, crust, cultivation, soil exhaustion, soil temperature, aeration, allelopathy, antagonism and synergism, agricultural use of residuals, land management at grazing lands, orchards, lawns, forests, ornithological planted areas, and salt-affected areas, land consolidation, adverse effects of improper agricultural practices, sustainable and ecological agriculture, non-nutrient elements in soils.

Remote Sensing

Fundamentals of remote sensing, energy sources and radiation principles, energy interactions in the atmosphere and with Earth surface features, Earth resource satellites, digital satellite data, importing satellite data, image enhancement, geo-processing and rectification, unsupervised and supervised image classification techniques, data processing techniques, use of satellite data.

 Land Use Plain

Description of Land use planning: necessity, rules and application scales, rural land use planning, multi-objective land use planning General land use classes: cropland, grassland, forest, recreation, urban, natural parks. The process of land use planning: object, description of problems, determination of alternative land uses, evaluation of land suitability, solution purpose, planning to change, control of purpose. Application area of Land use planning: Decision support system, politics, environmental, social and economic analysis, management programs. Land use planning periods: determination of the object, preliminary planning, special problems and solutions, optimization of land use, the conclusion of the land use planning. Fundamental properties of land use: land suitability maps, alternatives, and purpose, impacts of land use changes.

Environmental Impact Assessment

Ecological environment concept, main factors information of environmental problems, atmosphere chemistry and air pollution, global warming, control techniques of air pollution, hydrological cycle and properties, water pollution and technological approaches in control of sewage sludge, ecology of water land and its functions, soil pollution and continental contamination, management of solid wastes, radioactivity in environment, legal control of pollution.

Natural Resources and Environmental Management

The nature of environmental concerns, what is environmental management,analysis of environmental problem,the compartmental approach,water resources management,hydrological cycle,groundwater,water quality and pollution,land-use planning,river management,soil concept,reclamation of soil,soil management and soil erosion,soil water,soil management and importance of soil structure,soil management and plant nutrition, problems with soil chemistry, air quality management,noise pollution and control,waste management,energy,economy and the CO2 problem,natural hazards.

Hydroponic Technology

General aspects of the plant growth techniques on the growing media, calculation and preparation of nutrient solutions used in growing media, importance of anion-cation balance of nutrient solutions in respect to plant nutrition, the properties and quality criterion of the chemicals used for the preparation of nutrient solutions, water quality used for the preparation of nutrient solutions, control of pH and EC of nutrient solutions, using possibility of saline water for nutrient solutions, nutrient solutions for some vegetables and ornamental plants grown in soilless media, macro and micronutrient requirements of plants grown in soilless media, the importance of antagonism and synergism relations among the nutrients, nutritional disorders in the plants grown in soilless media, the importance of aeration of nutrient solutions and negative effects of aeration on plant roots, nutrition and yield quality in the plants grown in soilless media

Organic Agriculture and Sustainability of Soils

Terminology of organic agriculture, principal of plant breeding and plant nutrition in organic agriculture, management of organic matter, composting of organic materials, planning of plant rotation practices in organic agriculture, soil protection, Sustainable agriculture and fertility, arrangement for sustainable agriculture, biological nitrogen fixation and its application in organic agriculture, principal of organic fertilization.

Fertilization Of Greenhouse Grown Plants

Introduction, Growth media and mixes, Preparation of mixes, Plant nutrition and fertilization, Formulation and preparation of nutrient solution, Transplant production, Growth systems (soil and soilless culture), Nutrition and fertilization of intensively cultured greenhouse grown plants (tomato, pepper, cucumber, eggplant, squash etc.), changes and prevention of deficiency and toxicity of mineral nutrients in greenhouse grown plants

Field and Greenhouse Experiment Techniques

Introduction, Important theories and rules on soil fertility, Fertilizer used in experiments, their specifications and applications, Greenhouse experiments, Field experiments, Discussions on greenhouse and field experiments, Water quality used in the experiments, and irrigation methods.

Fertilization of Ornamental Plants

Available plant nutrient forms, disorders of ornamental plants resulted from deficiency and excess of nutrients, nutrient requirements of ornamental plants, fertilizers and fundamental knowledge of fertilization, importance of fertilization in ornamental plants, growing media for ornamental plants, preparation of fertilizer mixtures and nutrient solutions for some ornamental plants,

Soil Classification Survey and Mappıng

Introduction, Soil Morphology, Soil formation process, Soil classification, Soil taxonomy and taxonomic system, Soil survey and mapping use area and object, Soil mapping, Soil survey and mapping induction time, Soil describe and analysis, Report of soil survey and mapping, Comment on soil survey and mapping explain taxonomy.

Techniques for Soil and Water Conservation

Soil Conservation and Environment, Strategies for Soil and Water Conservation, Approaches to Conserving Soil and Water, Crop and Vegetative Cover Management, Soil Management, Physical Conservation Practices. Laboratory exercises: Analysis of Drop Size Distribution and Determination of Coefficients for Drop Characteristics, Calculation of Drop Impact Velocities, Curves of Duration and Rainfall Amount for I30 Estimation, Determination of Factors of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) (Rainfall Erosivity, R; Soil Erodibility, K; Slope Length, L and Steepness, S; Cover Management Factor, C; Support Practice Factor, P), Terracing, Diversion Ditches and USLE Solution in a Sample Watershed.

Plant Physiology

Plant physiology and plant cells, enzymes, hormones and growth regulators, plant growth and development, plant-water-soil relationships, water uptake and translocation, mineral nutrition in plants, ion uptake, ion translocation in phloem and xylem, roots, rhizosphere and mycorrhizae, photosynthesis, translocation and distribution of photoassimilates, respiration, the physiology of plants under stress.

Plant Nutrition and Fertilization

Introduction, Foliar nutrient uptake, Fertilizers and Fertilization, Uptake of nutrient (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B, Mo, Cl) by plants, their fate in soil and plants, their physiological and biochemical role in plants, and their deficiency and toxicity in plants, Chloride, Sodium and salinity, Beneficial elements, Relations between plant nutrition and both diseases and parasites.

Geomorphology

Earth Shape and Divisions, Magmatic, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks, Climatic Zones and Processes, Orogenic Zone, Tectonic Geomorphology, Chemical Weathering and Soils, Physical Weathering, Mass Movement, Slopes, Drainage Network, River Channels, Sediment in Channels, Channel Pattern, Floodplains, Fluvial Terraces, Alluvial Fans, Deltas, Glacial, Tectonic and Volcanic Shapes, Faults, Folds, Joint and Fissure Systems, Lakes, Karst Characteristics, Surface Landforms, Limestone Caves, Coastal Topography.

Ornamental Plants Physiology

Plant cells and its features, functions of plant roots, water absorption in plants, uptake of plant nutrients and their assimilation, fluorescence in plants, effect of photoperiodism and temperature on fluorescence, flower formation, effect of hormones on flowering, physiology of hormone effect, features and functions of phytohormones, using purpose of phytohormones in ornamentals, stress physiology, water stress, salt stress, light stress, cold stress.